6 national parties and 21 state parties along with independents fought for 494 constituencies / Lok Sabha seats in 1962 Lok Sabha Elections. Uttar Pradesh had the highest no. of seats (86), followed by Bihar (53) and Maharashtra (44). Elections were held for 18 states / union territories. Gujarat (22) and Maharashtra (44) were carved out of Bombay state (66). The elections saw the abolishment of 2 seat / 3 seat constituencies.
Congress was still the major political force in the country having given Indian independence from British. Nehru led Congress into the 3rd elections. The party won with a thumping majority – 73% of total seats. The second and third largest parties were CPI and Swatantra Party.
The Swatantra Party was founded by C. Rajagopalachari and N.C. Ranga in Aug. 1959. The party opposed the Nehruvian socialist outlook and advocated free enterprise, free trade and opposed the licence-permit Raj. They had worked closely with Nehru to obtain independence for India. Rajagopalachari was the last Governor-General of India and amongst the first recipients of Bharat Ratna.
Congress did well in AP (34), Maharashtra (31), Bihar (39), Madras (31) and UP (62). CPI did well in Kerala, AP, WB and Tripura, still considered as its bastion till recently except T. Nadu.
|Name of Party||Seats Won||Change||Votes %|
|INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS(INC)||361||(10)||45%|
|COMMUNIST PARTY OF INDIA (CPI)||29||2||10%|
|PRAJA SOCIALIST PARTY (PSP)||12||(7)||7%|
|BHARTIYA JAN SANGH(BJS)||14||10||6%|
|OTHER STATE PARTIES||28||(3)||9%|
|REGISTERED UNRECOGNISED PARTIES||6||6||1%|
Source: Statistical Report, Election Commission of India, 1962; Wikipedia
Some Interesting Facts
- Voting population was 12.7 crores (2009 elections 71.4 crores)
- Voting % was 55.4% (2009 elections 59.7%)
- Multi-seat constituencies were discontinued in 1962.
- 1,985 candidates participated, 4.02 per constituency (2009 average 14.86)
- 43.1% candidates lost their deposits (2009 elections 84.6%)
- Women MPs were 6% (2009 it increased to 11%)