History of Elections: 1st Lok Sabha (1952)


Some readers have suggested that I should write something about the history of elections in India. Start from today a series on the same which will cover information from 1st to 15th Lok Sabha. 

————————————————————————————————————————————

India gained independence in 1947 and Jawaharlal Nehru became the 1st Prime Minister of the country as he was the President of the Indian National Congress (INC) when India gained independence.  The 1st Lok Sabha elections were held in end of 1951 – beginning of 1952, after the term of Nehru ended.

14 national parties and 39 state parties along with independents fought for 401 constituencies (489 Lok Sabha seats). Uttar Pradesh has the highest no. of seats (86), followed by Madras (75) and Bihar (55). While undivided UP and Bihar still have similar no. of seats, no. of seats of Madras has reduced significantly from 75 to now Tamil Nadu (39) as part of current Andhra Pradesh was part of Madras.

Congress was the major political force in the country having given Indian independence from British. But before the elections, two stalwarts of Nehru’s cabinet – Shyama Prasad Mookerjee and B.R.Ambedkar (who drafted the Constitution) left Congress to form their own political parties, due to differences with Nehru. Mookerjkee formed Bhartiya Jan Sangh – BJS (parent organization of current BJP) and Ambedkar formed Republican Party of India (RPI). There are many RPIs today in India after several splits but philosophy of Ambedkar is carried on by Mayawati’s BSP (so it claims).

Other prominent parties were Socialist Party – SP (RM Lohia and JP Narayan), Communist Party – CPI and Kisan Majdoor Praja Parishad – KMPP (A Kripalani). It is noted that Kripalalni was one of the three contenders for post of INC President and eventually PM but lost out to Nehru.

Congress won thumping majority – 75% of total seats while regional parties and independents won 15% of the seats. So the regional parties becoming so strong today has some history. The second and third largest parties were CPI and SP.

Congress swept UP and Bihar with 126 seats (out of 141 seats) while it did ok in Madras (35 out of 75 seats). So historically in T. Nadu it didn’t fare well. In all the three states currently Congress doesn’t have great presence and explains its decline. CPI did well in Madras, WB and Tripura, still considered as its bastion till recently except T. Nadu.

Parties

Seats Won

Win %

Votes %

INC

364

76%

45%

CPI

16

33%

3%

SP

12

5%

11%

KMPP

9

6%

6%

BJS

3

3%

3%

Other National Parties

14

NA

8%

State Parties

34

27%

8%

Independents

37

7%

16%

Total

489

 

100%

Some Interesting Facts

  • Voting population was 17.3 crores (2009 elections 71.4 crores)
  • Voting % was 44.87% (2009 elections 59.7%)
  • There were 314 one-seat, 86 two-seat and one three-seat constituencies. Multi-seat constituencies were discontinued in 1960s.
  • Ambedkar lost elections.
  • 1,874 candidates participated, 4.67 per constituency (2009 average 14.86)
  • 18.3% candidates lost their deposits (2009 elections 84.6%)
  • MPs >56 yrs of age was 20% (2009 it was 43%)
  • Women MPs were 5% (2009 it increased to 11%)
  • Lok Sabha met for 127 days in a year (2011 it decreased to 73 days)

 

Advertisements

3 thoughts on “History of Elections: 1st Lok Sabha (1952)

  1. Nothing But Despair ?

    Do forthcoming Lok Sabha elections hold anything but despair for the women of India ?

    Unfortunate , but I don’t think so

    Optimists may want to look at the following statistics :

    Lok Sabha of / No of Women Contestants / Winners / Percentage

    > 1957 / 45 / 27 / 60 %
    > 1967 / 67 / 30 / 45 %
    > 1980 / 142 / 28 / 20 %
    > 1998 / 274 / 43 / 16 %
    > 1999 / 296 / 52 / 17 %
    > 2004 / 355 / 45 / 13 %
    > 2009 / 556 / 59 / 10 %
    > 2014 ? 600 ? 60 ? 10 % ?

    My reasons for despair :

    > Even though marginally more number of women may contest in 2014 ,
    the percentage of women winners may either remain same or decline

    > Apparently – and sadly – women voters ( nearly 400+ million ) will
    continue to vote for male candidates

    > With a male-dominated Lok Sabha , Women’s Reservation Bill , which is
    pending for the past 40 years , will continue to remain pending for next
    40 years

    > With 11 % women in Lok Sabha , India ranks 111th out of 185 countries
    when it comes to women representation in parliaments of these countries

    > Criminalization of politics will continue as before , despite the fact that ,in
    the current Lok Sabha , only 6 women MPs have ” Criminal Cases ”
    pending against them , as against 161 male MPs who have such a
    reputation !

    Is there any hope ?

    Yes ,

    > If all women members of 7 National level and 34 Regional level political
    parties resign en-masse from their current parties and come together to
    form WAR ( Women And Rights ) party

    > Accept only women as members of this WAR party

    > Put up women candidates for all 543 Lok Sabha seats ( too late for 2014 )

    > Persuade women voters not to vote for any male candidate

    WOMEN OF INDIA ,

    If you think , by some magic , male-dominated Lok Sabha will hand-over to
    you EQUALITY on a platter , then forget it

    You are fooling no one but yourself !

    Don’t expect the males to gift you , your RIGHTS

    You will need to forcefully snatch away what is rightfully , yours !

    Stop self – pity and ask yourself ,

    ” How come a developing African country like RWANDA , has 60 % members of its parliament , women ? ”

    * hemen parekh ( 30 March 2014 / Mumbai )

    Like

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s