2nd Lok Sabha Elections

India gained independence in 1947 and Jawaharlal Nehru became the 1st Prime Minister of the country as he was the President of the Indian National Congress (INC) when India gained independence.  INC under Nehru won the 1st national elections held in 1952 (74% of total seats). Nehru led the Congress into the 2nd Lok Sabha elections held in 1957.

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4 national parties and 11 state parties along with independents fought for 403 constituencies (494 Lok Sabha seats). Uttar Pradesh has the highest no. of seats (86), followed by Bombay  (66) and Bihar (53). While undivided UP and Bihar still have similar no. of seats, no. of seats of Bombay has reduced from 66 to now Maharashtra (48) as part of current Gujarat was part of Maharashtra then.

Congress was still the major political force in the country having given Indian independence from British. An important event which happened after the 1952 elections is the merger of Socialist Party – SP (RM Lohia and JP Narayan) with Kisan Majdoor Praja Parishad – KMPP (A Kripalani) to form Praja Socialist Party (PSP). It is noted that Kripalalni was one of the three contenders for post of INC President and eventually PM but lost out to Nehru in 1947.

Congress won thumping majority – 75% of total seats. The second and third largest parties were CPI and PSP.

Atal Bihari Vajpayee who went on to become PM in 1998 made his debut as a MP in 1957 and was chosen from Balrampur constituency. These elections also saw the rise of Congress member, Feroz Gandhi (who went on to marry Nehru’s daughter Indira). He won from Rae Bareilly constituency (now Sonia’s constituency).

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Congress swept UP and Bihar with 110 seats (out of 138 seats) while it did ok in Madras (38 out of 66 seats). In UP and Bihar currently Congress doesn’t have great presence and explains its decline. CPI did well in Kerala and WB still considered as its bastion.

Name of Party

Seats Won

Change

Vote %

INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS(INC)

371

7

48%

COMMUNIST  PARTY OF INDIA (CPI)

27

11

9%

PRAJA SOCIALIST PARTY (PSP)

19

(2)

10%

BHARTIYA JAN SANGH(BJS)

4

1

6%

OTHER NATIONAL PARTIES

0

(14)

0%

OTHER STATE PARTIES

31

(3)

8%

INDEPENDENTS (IND)

42

5

19%

TOTAL

494

100%

Some Interesting Facts

  • Voting population was 19.4 crores (2009 elections 71.4 crores)
  • Voting % was 45.4% (2009 elections 59.7%)
  • There were 312 one-seat and 91 two-seat constituencies. Multi-seat constituencies were discontinued in 1960s.
  • Ambedkar lost elections.
  • 1,519 candidates participated, ~3 per constituency (2009 average ~15)
  • ~33% candidates lost their deposits (2009 elections ~85%)
  • Women MPs were 4% (2009 it increased to 11%)

4 thoughts on “2nd Lok Sabha Elections

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