Mamata Banerjee was born on 5 January 1955. in Calcutta (now Kolkata), West Bengal in a Bengali family.Her father name is Promileswar Banerjee and Her mother name is Gayetri Devi. After Graduation Banerjee earned a master’s degree in Islamic History from the University of Calcutta. She also earned a law degree from the Jogesh Chandra Chaudhuri Law College, Kolkata.
Banerjee started her political career in the Congress party, and as a young woman in the 1970s, she quickly rose in the ranks of the local Congress group, and remained the General Secretary of Mahila Congress (I), West Bengal, from 1976 to 1980. In the 1984 general election, Banerjee became one of India’s youngest parliamentarians ever, beating veteran Communist politician Somnath Chatterjee, from the Jadavpur parliamentary Constituency in West Bengal. She also became the General-Secretary of the Indian Youth Congress. Losing her seat in 1989 in an anti-Congress wave, she was back in 1991 general elections, having settled into the Calcutta South constituency. She retained the Kolkata South seat in the 1996, 1998, 1999, 2004 and 2009 general elections.
Banerjee founded the party All India Trinamool Congress (AITMC or TMC) in 1997 and became its chairperson, after separating from the Indian National Congress. In 1999, she joined the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government and was allocated the Railways Ministry. In early 2001, after the Tehelka expose, Banerjee walked out of the NDA cabinet and allied with the Congress Party for West Bengal’s 2001 elections, in protest of the corruption charges levelled by Tehelka.com against senior ministers of the Government. She returned to the NDA government in January 2004, and held the Coal and Mines portfolio till the Indian general election of 20 May 2004, in which she was the only Trinamool Congress member to win a Parliament seat from West Bengal. In 2006, the Trinamool Congress was defeated in West Bengal’s Assembly Elections, losing more than half of its sitting members. In November 2006, Banerjee was forcibly stopped on her way to Singur for a rally against a proposed Tata Motors car project.
Before the 2009 parliamentary elections she forged an alliance with the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) led by Indian National Congress. The alliance won 26 seats. Banerjee joined the central cabinet as the railway minister (second tenure). In 2011, Banerjee won a sweeping majority and assumed the position of chief minister of the state of West Bengal. Her party ended the 34-year rule of the Left Front.
TMC threatened to withdraw support from UPA in protest of the government’s decision to allow FDI in retail markets and also against hike of petrol diesel prices and gave 72hrs for withdrawing the Reforms. On 18 Sep 2012 Evening Mamata Banarjee declared her party has withdrawn support from UPA and ran independently. The TMC’s Minister submitted his resignation on Friday 21 Sep 2012.
She is often referred to as Didi (meaning elder sister in Bengali). She opposed forceful land acquisition for industrialisation by the then communist government in West Bengal for Special Economic Zones at the cost of agriculturalists and farmers.In 2012, Time magazine named her one of the “100 Most influential People in the World.